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The Great War and WWII [1850-1980]

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Home:  Shells and Grenades

Please Note: Not all of the objects on this website are on display at the museum.


Image of CZECHOSLOVAKIAN VERSION OF TELLERMINE PT-Mi-K (practice)

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CZECHOSLOVAKIAN VERSION OF TELLERMINE PT-Mi-K (practice)

Czech version of German Tellermine. Date unknown. Originally thought to be Russian and kindly identified by Steve Diablo. See Comment.

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A1445

Image of BLENDKORPER 2H SMOKE GRENADE

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BLENDKORPER 2H SMOKE GRENADE

Blendkorper 2 H Used by the Germans as a smoke screen before attaching mines to oncoming Tank tracks among other uses.
The grenade consists of a pear-shaped, glass outer flask, resembling a large electric light bulb, almost filled with a brown liquid. Inside is a long tube filled with a clear liquid; both are capped with a sulphur and plaster of Paris cement. The total weight is slightly over seven ounces.

The outer flask is a pear-shaped glass bulb, 2-1/2 inches in diameter at the widest point, 3-15/16 inches in height to the neck, where it flares out 1/8 inch and forms a collar approximately 1 inch in height and 1-1/2 inch in diameter. This flask contains 8.75 ounces of titanium tetrachloride.

The inner glass tube is 3 7/8 inches long and 7/8 inch in diameter, resembling a test tube with the upper end sealed off; the weight is a little under an ounce. The upper end has a slight shoulder which rests on a rubber-like plastic washer; this washer in turn rests on the inside shoulder of the collar of the outer flask; thus, when the cementing material was poured, the inner tube was firmly sealed within the neck of the outer flask. The inner tube contains about 1.2 ounce of a 27 per cent solution of calcium chloride.

The smoke is produced by hydrolysis of titanium tetrachloride. The purpose of the inner tube of calcium chloride solution is to provide water to react with the titanium tetrachloride and produce an instantaneous smoke cloud in the desert or in cold areas, where the low humidity would cause a slow reaction. The calcium chloride is probably added to keep the water from freezing.

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A1442

Image of WWII GERMAN SECTIONALISED 37MM ROUND AZ39, 1938

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WWII GERMAN SECTIONALISED 37MM ROUND AZ39, 1938

German WW2 round with impact fuze and cut away to show workings. The round is dated 1938 and was cut in half in 1984, probably for training purposes.

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A0472

Image of WW1  BRITISH BATTYE BOMB, 1915

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WW1 BRITISH BATTYE BOMB, 1915

In late 1914 and early 1915 Captain B C Battye of the Royal Engineers designed and put in to production through the Bethune Ironworks his 'Battye' or 'Bethune' bomb.
The Battye Bomb, consisted of a cast iron mug shaped container diced for fragmentation filled with 40 grammes of high explosive. The top of the container was sealed with a wood stopper and wax with a Bickford fuze . A Nobel safety device was used to light the fuze but, as a safety measure, this was only inserted at the time of use.
William Bickford invented the safety fuse for igniting gunpowder, an invention that saved many lives. There were many miners killed by misuse of gunpowder. Early fuses were often tubes of reeds filled with powder and were unreliable. Either they exploded too early not giving miners time to get away, or took too long to ignite and killed miners who assumed the fuse had gone out. William Bickford was born in Ashburton, Devon in January 1774. He moved to Truro as a currier, preparing leather. He then moved on to Tuckingmill near Camborne in the Cornwall mining area.

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A0961

Image of WW1 CITRON FOUG or LEMON GRENADE, 1915

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WW1 CITRON FOUG or LEMON GRENADE, 1915

The fuze body was made of wood, holding a striker, creep spring, primer and safety fuze with a detonator. The fuze was covered by a safety cap that Has several shapes, this is missing.
Before throwing, the cap was removed and the striker was to be hit on a hard surface.
Similar in operation to the Mills Bomb, Which is safer is debatable. At least if the french model was dropped without hitting the striker it would not explode, not so with the mills once the pin had been removed.
The fuze assembly has been reconstructed using information kindly supplied by, westernfront.nl. The Western Front Museum

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A0962

Image of WWII PROXIMITY FUZE (FUSE)

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WWII PROXIMITY FUZE (FUSE)

During the raids of WW2 a gunner issued complaints against our methods of defence, it was said, that shooting down an aircraft at night was ‘‘like shooting a fly in a darkened room with a pea shooter''. The Marconi Osram Valve Company amongst others, were given the task of solving the problem. Guided Missile technology was not an option at this time (the Germans astounded the world, later in the war with their V1 & V2). It was decided that a shell fuze, which triggered when an object was in the proximity of the shell (such as an aircraft), was the solution. The biggest problem was how to protect the amplifier section of the fuze from the blast of the gun. Special valves were developed to solve the problem; these can be seen in the 2nd section of the display. On leaving the gun at 20,000g and spinning at 3,000 rpm together with the vibration of the barrel, the success of these fuzes was no mean feat. Tests fired the fuze 8 miles into the sky vertically. On returning to the ground it had to be dug from under 8 feet of Salisbury Plain, amazingly it was still working. The amplifier is in the base, this was connected to the battery which was made of ring shaped plates around an ampoule of acid, upon firing of the gun the ampoule shattered and soaked the plates turning them into a charged battery. The top is a pointed cone and a plate embedded in plastic, this formed a capacitor which oscillated at 100mghz, if an object came close to this (up to 30ft) the oscillation was disturbed and the final valve triggered the detonator. The valves are oscillator, amplifier and trigger valve. Although the final product was produced and tested (over the channel so if it failed to explode it could not fall in to enemy hands), it needed to be produced in vast numbers; our manufacturing capability was saturated with weapons and planes at the time so the project was passed to the Americans. At the same time Radar was now becoming a reality and this unit was scrapped in favour of a device that used the new technology. Many of these and the new version were instrumental in bringing down the V1 ''Doodlebugs'' during the war.

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A0478

Image of WWII PROXIMITY FUZE (FUSE)

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WWII PROXIMITY FUZE (FUSE)

Developed by the British, production was taken over by the U.S. during WW2. They produced many of these fuses that worked by exploding only when they came into the proximity of another object. The method of detection used the new Radar method, possibly without Ranging developed during the war, although the original British design worked on another principal, (see Item No A0478). The advantages of these shells helped bring down many of the V1 rockets that were difficult to hit with conventional weapons. For a possible Valve see Item A1425.

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A0430

Image of WW1 FRENCH EXPERIMENTAL GRENADE

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WW1 FRENCH EXPERIMENTAL GRENADE

Sold to the museum as an experimental French grenade, no more is known about its origin. it may not be French and it may not be experimental as during WW1 soldiers on the front line were coming up with all manner of ideas for new explosive devices.

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A0445

Image of WW1 MILLS No. 5 GRENADE WITH No. 23 BASE AND LAUNCHING BRACKET

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WW1 MILLS No. 5 GRENADE WITH No. 23 BASE AND LAUNCHING BRACKET

The bracket was fitted to the end of a Short Magazine Lee Enfield rifle and held a No23 Grenade which was fitted with a rod screwed into the base plate.
The No 3 Grenade Launcher was adopted to enable the launching of a No 23, or a similar bomb from a Lee Enfield Rifle, it’s base had a threaded hole into which a rod could be screwed, this was fed down the barrel of the gun after the launching bracket had been mounted. The former was then fired using a blank cartridge.

No5 Grenades had no hole in the base plate, but a No 23 base would fit a No 5 Grenade.
So it follows that many No 5 units can be found with No 23 bases.
The launchers intention was to hold the safety lever in place, after the pin had been removed, until the unit was fired.

For more information see Item A1141

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A0448

Image of WW1 No.5 MILLS GRENADE

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WW1 No.5 MILLS GRENADE

Designed by William Mills - a golf club designer from Sunderland - he patented, developed and manufactured the 'Mills bomb' at the Mills Munitions Factory in Birmingham, England in 1915.

The Mills bomb was adopted by the British Army as its standard hand grenade in 1915, and designated as the No. 5. It was also used by the Irish Republican Army.

The Mills bomb underwent numerous modifications. The No. 23 was a variant of the No. 5 with a rodded base plug which allowed it to be fired from a rifle. This concept further evolved with the No. 36, a variant with a detachable base plate to allow for use with a rifle discharger cup. The final variation of the Mills bomb was the No. 36M which was specially designed and waterproofed with shellac for use in the hot climate of Mesopotamia in 1917.

By 1918 the No. 5 and No. 23 were declared obsolete and the No. 36 continued in use until 1972.

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A1141

Image of WW1 No. 5 BRITISH MILLS GRENADE

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WW1 No. 5 BRITISH MILLS GRENADE

1916 1st COW (Coventry Ordnance Works). 75 Million Hand grenades were produced during WW1

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A0869

Image of WWII CUT AWAY MILLS No 36 TRAINING HAND GRENADE

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WWII CUT AWAY MILLS No 36 TRAINING HAND GRENADE

Training aid for the Mills no 36 hand Grenade dated 1940. Inside can be seen the coil spring that is released when the pin is pulled out, this fires the percussion cap (not present) which ignites the fuze, this burns for the time required normally around 5 seconds, which then fires the detonator on the end, firing the main charge. 75 Million hand grenades of of the Mills type were produced during WW1. For more information see Item A1141

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A0447

Image of WW1 GRENADE LAUNCHER No1 Mk1 of 1917

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WW1 GRENADE LAUNCHER No1 Mk1 of 1917

Mentioned first in 1917 for use with a No23 type grenade, fitted with a gas check plate and designated the No36 Grenade See Item A0809. The plate is required to contain the gases from the blank cartridge in the rifle, thus pushing it out of the cup releasing the grenades clip (the pin having been removed).

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A0778

Image of WW11 No. 36 GRENADE

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WW11 No. 36 GRENADE

This No 36 Grenade is fitted with a flat gas check plate on the bottom, and is a modification to the No23 grenade. The plate is required to contain the gases from the blank cartridge in the rifle, thus pushing it out of the cup releasing the grenades clip (the pin having been removed). The unit is fired from a discharger cup or launcher Item A0778. The No36 left service in 1972

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A0809

Image of AMERICAN PINEAPPLE GRENADE  WITH TRIP FUZE(FUSE), 1960's

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AMERICAN PINEAPPLE GRENADE WITH TRIP FUZE(FUSE), 1960's

Mk 2 Grenade replaced by the M67 with smooth outer used in Vietnam.

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A0981

Image of WWII  BRITISH STICKY BOMB No74

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WWII BRITISH STICKY BOMB No74

Not adopted by the Army, this Bomb eventually found it's way to the Home Guard, with some sad stories of accidents. The first pin pulled would remove the covers exposing the sticky ball, the second pin pulled would arm the device requiring only that the bomb be let go.
Releasing the clip on the handle fired the fuze which would leave only seconds for the soldier to retire, after planting the bomb on it's target,thats when the accidents would happen. Packed with one and a half pounds of Nytro-Glycerine, the covering is Bird Lime over a glass flask.



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A0896

Image of WW1 TOFFEE APPLE BOMB

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WW1 TOFFEE APPLE BOMB

Launched by a charge from a tube, this bomb could reach 500 to 600 Yards with devastating effect.
The Germans hated it so much that if a trench was stormed and evidence of this weapon was found , no mercy was given.

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A0895

Image of WW1 EGG GRENADES

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WW1 EGG GRENADES

Egg Grenades were carried in bags on the shoulders of the German Infantry during WW1, being light, many could be carried by one man, a slight advantage over the British Mills Grenade, but less effective because of their small size.

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A0451

Image of WW1 VIVIEN BRESSIERE FRENCH RIFLE  GRENADE, 1915

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WW1 VIVIEN BRESSIERE FRENCH RIFLE GRENADE, 1915

The "Vivien Bressiere" rifle grenade. Placed in a cup-holder attached to the end of the rifle and fired using a ball charge to propel the grenade and initiate the timed fuse, this clever design was imitated by the German rifle grenade of 1917. This particular example is in very good condition and complete with the top lead plug, bottom brass plug and detonator holder.

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A0823

Image of GERMAN RIFLE GRENADE, 1913

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GERMAN RIFLE GRENADE, 1913

Using a blank cartridge in the rifle the rod was put down the barrel and fired. The problem with this is that the grenade is primed and the fuse ignited as the projectile leaves the barrel, therefore if the grenade does not eject itself correctley it will still go off!. This problem was solved by the Hales grenade see Item A0444. On the end of this grenade is a plate used to slow down the travel of the devise, as usually the enemy trench was no more than a few yards away.

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A0443

Image of WW1 HALES No 3 MK 1 SHORT RIFLE GRENADE

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WW1 HALES No 3 MK 1 SHORT RIFLE GRENADE

The Hales Grenade was the solution to the problem of the unit exploding in front of the rifleman, if the grenade flopped out of the gun in front of you instead of being launched towards the enemy once it had been primed there was nothing you could do to stop it from exploding. Frederick Marten Hale, in 1915 designed a fuse that could not explode until it was in the air at speed, it worked by a wind vane that once turned it would prime the grenade and trigger the fuze, which had an impact graze type, if it fell out of the rifle without travelling at speed through the air it could not explode. The manufacture of these grenades was difficult and expensive at the time, but for the safety and confidence it gave the user, it was worth it.

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A0444

Image of WW1 GERMAN POPPENBERG  JAM POT OR STICK GRENADE, 1915

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WW1 GERMAN POPPENBERG JAM POT OR STICK GRENADE, 1915

Known as a Jam Pot or Potato Masher because of its shape this Grenade lasted until 1917 with later versions used in the Second War. This is the original 1915 design with a lever to ignite the fuze, this was held in with a safety pin, once removed the unit was thrown. It also had a belt clip on the side of the body. This sample is badly corroded, and the wooden handle is not original.

It was used for only a short time due to its unreliable fuse, there is another type with the same handle but it has a kugal (see item A0822) instead of the can, thus the can version being an offensive item and the Ball ( Kugalkopft ) being the defensive version.

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A0449

Image of WW1 KUGEL HAND GRENADE, 1915

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WW1 KUGEL HAND GRENADE, 1915

The Kugel grenade Model 1913 (' Kugelhandgranate ') 2nd Model. 1915.
Having an external squaring to help the fragmentation in 70 to 80 pieces, this steel sphere was equipped with a pulling bronze detonator, giving a 7 seconds delay (models with 5 seconds delay were available).
The German troops began the 1914 campaign with large quantities of this grenade. Weight 1 kg, 45 g.

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A0822

Image of WW1 DISC OR OYSTER SHELL GRENADE

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WW1 DISC OR OYSTER SHELL GRENADE

The German Discus or Oyster Grenade worked by a tube held in by the safety pin, once removed fell out when being thrown like a Discus, once the tube was out it enabled four plungers on springs to become free, these had pins on the end hovering over four detonators, when the unit landed the pins were thrown into the detonator(s) and the device exploded. The explosive is held between two sheets of moulded steel clamped together round the edges.

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A0453

Image of WW1 FRENCH BALL or BRACELET GRENADE, 1914

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WW1 FRENCH BALL or BRACELET GRENADE, 1914

Used during the early part of WW1 when supplies of grenades were scarce, this style dated back over 100 years, based on a hollow ball filled with black powder and a flamable fuze, on this version the fuze and charge was slightly more sophisticated.

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A0450

Image of WW1 STOKES MORTAR, 1917

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WW1 STOKES MORTAR, 1917

Having a grenade type clip and fuze at one end and a shotgun cartridge at the other, this bomb was dropped down a tube with a pin at the bottom, on hitting the pin the bomb was ejected by the cartridge the clip flying off after leaving the tube, the bomb would explode after the fuze time.

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A0905

Image of APDS ARMOUR PIERCING DISCARDING SABOT (CUT AWAY), 1970's

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APDS ARMOUR PIERCING DISCARDING SABOT (CUT AWAY), 1970's

Armour-piercing, discarding-sabot (APDS)
APDS was developed by engineers working for the French Edgar Brandt company, and was fielded in two calibers (75 mm/57 mm for the Mle1897/33 75 mm anti-tank cannon, 37 mm/25 mm for several 37 mm gun types) just before the French-German armistice of 1940. The Edgar Brandt engineers, having been evacuated to the United Kingdom, joined ongoing APDS development efforts there, culminating in significant improvements to the concept and its realization. British APDS ordnance for their QF 6 pdr and 17 pdr anti-tank guns was fielded in March 1944.

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A0833

Image of WW1 FRENCH F1 GRENADE, 1915

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WW1 FRENCH F1 GRENADE, 1915

The French F1 was similar in appearance to the failed US grenade. It has a hollow cast iron body, heavily grooved in a familiar quilted "pineapple" pattern to enhance fragmentation. Although initially deployed to French forces in 1915 with a match primer it was soon replaced with a weather proof strike primer. This system required the soldier to strike a blow to the cap of the grenade after removing a safety cover to initiate the burn time fuse. Better than a match lit fuze, it still had to be thrown once the striker has been activated. The quest for a better fuze continued so that by 1917 there were a dozen or so contraptions developed as fuses for the French F1 Defensive Grenade. They included tumblers, pins, strikers, slow burn matches, each inventor claiming superiority.

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A0821

Image of WWII GERMAN GLASS MINE 43

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WWII GERMAN GLASS MINE 43

Information about these mines is scarce as not very many were made, in fact it is possible that the glass portion of this unit is reproduction, however the fuze and plate are genuine probably the only surviving parts of the original. Being made of glass and used as an anti personal device it would be difficult to detect by normal mine detection equipment, it worked by breaking the glass cover when trod upon. Inside this unit is a dummy charge made to look like the original explosive. The Round Coloured glass disc sat on top of the thin sheet of glass over the trip to weigh it down. Known as the Glasmine43.

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A0431

Image of (POST) WWII  BAKELITE TELLERMINE  , 1950's

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(POST) WWII BAKELITE TELLERMINE , 1950's

This model is made entirely of Bakelite to evade Mine Detectors, and was produced after the War. No other information is known.

Other models like the Tellermine 35 (T.Mi.35) was a German metal cased anti-tank mine used extensively during the Second World War. The mines case was made of sheet steel, and has a slightly convex pressure plate on the top surface with a central fuse well. Two secondary fuse wells are located on the side and bottom of the mine for anti-handling devices.

For use on beaches and underwater, the mine could be deployed inside a specially designed earthenware or concrete pot, which acted as a waterproof jacket for the mine.

A later variant of the mine, the T.Mi.35 (S) was produced with a ribbed case and a fuse cover. The ribbed case stopped sand from blowing off the top of the mine when it was used in a desert or sandy environment.

Pressure of 400 pounds (180 kg) on the centre of the mine or 200 pounds (90 kg) on the edge of the mine deforms the pressure plate compressing a spring, and shearing a retaining pin holding the striker. Once the striker is released it is driven into a percussion cap which ignites the detonator followed by the booster charge and main charge.
During 'D' Day the Germans mounted Tellermines on poles just below the waves on the beaches to stop the landing crafts that were expected in the event of an invasion.

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A0830

Image of WWII 3.7cm RODDED ANTI-TANK BOMB

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WWII 3.7cm RODDED ANTI-TANK BOMB

Designed during WW2 as a stopgap for an improved anti-tank weapon that would fit the 3.7cm PAK (panzerabwehrkanone) 36 anti-tank gun, which was already in service, this weapon was not effective against the Russian T-34 Tanks. It was better to developed a new projectile than a whole new gun, it was known as the 3.7cm Stielgranate 41 or the 3.7cm Aufstek Geschoss (Attached projectile). This is a hollow charge weapon designed to penetrate thick armour by exploding just above the surface of the target, and melting a hole by using a shaped charge. Fitting into the barrel of the PAK36 gun and fired using a blank charge inserted in the breach. Weighing 8.6kg (19lb) with an effective range of 300m (328yds) it could penetrate 180mm (7inch) of armour plate.

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A0832

Image of WW1 CLARK 'D' GAS BOTTLE

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WW1 CLARK 'D' GAS BOTTLE

A German Gas Bottle which contained toxic gas to be used in the chemical Warfare during 1917. This green glass bottle contained a fluid with a colour varying from eggwhite to brown/yellow and a smell similar to shoe polish, it was known to the Germans under the code name 'Clark' which stood for DA-gas, a Vomiting agent. The product was meant specifically to penetrate through safety measures such as gasmasks, especially treated cloths and even the anti gas ointment Item A0819. It was only loaded into projectiles of the 7.7cm model 1896 and the model 1915. These could be identified by a blue cross on the body. When the shell exploded, the glass was shattered and the fluid vaporised. Tens of these formed a vast cloud of toxic gas. This was a very rare item as it was only to be removed when opening a gas shell, something that no reasonable human being dared to do. In 2002 during earthworks in the village of Houthulst (Belgium) near to the site of the Bomb Disposal Base of the Belgium Army, a dump of inner parts of all sorts of German Shells and grenades was discovered. Research has shown that in 1919 German prisoners of war had been put to work emptying these dangerous beasts to salvage steel. The parts not wanted were simply thrown into shell holes. Only around 300 are known to have survived from that source.

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A0828

Image of WWII INCENDIARY BOMB

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WWII INCENDIARY BOMB

Incendiary bombs, also known as firebombs, were used as an effective bombing weapon in World War II. The large bomb casing was filled with small sticks of incendiaries (bomblets), and designed to open at altitude, scattering the bomblets in order to cover a wide area. An explosive charge would then ignite the incendiary material, often starting a raging fire. The fire would burn at extreme temperatures that could destroy most buildings made of wood or other combustible materials (buildings constructed of stone tend to resist incendiary destruction unless they are first blown open by high explosives). Originally, incendiaries were developed in order to destroy the many small, decentralized war industries located (often intentionally) throughout vast tracts of city land in an effort to escape destruction by conventionally-aimed high-explosive bombs. Nevertheless, the civilian destruction caused by such weapons quickly earned them a reputation as terror weapons (e.g., German Terrorflieger) with the targeted populations, and more than a few shot-down aircrews were summarily executed by angry civilians upon capture.The Nazi regime began the campaign of incendiary bombings with the bombing of London in 1940–41, and reprisal was exacted by the Allies in the strategic bombing campaign. In the Pacific War, during the last seven months of strategic bombing by B-29 Superfortresses in the airwar against Japan, a change to firebombing tactics resulted in some 500,000 Japanese deaths and 5 million more made homeless. 67 of Japan's largest cities lost significant areas to incendiary attacks. The most deadly single bombing raid in all history was Operation Meetinghouse, an incendiary attack that killed some 100,000 Tokyo residents in one night.

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A0808

Image of BOFORS 40mm PRACTICE ROUND, 1951

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BOFORS 40mm PRACTICE ROUND, 1951

Practice round for a 40mm Bofors Gun 1951.

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A0473

Image of WWI WICKER SHELL CARRIER (BASKET)

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WWI WICKER SHELL CARRIER (BASKET)

A Shell Carrier used during WW1 for the transportation of large shells (15cm), horses were used to carry these, sometimes as many as four on either side of it.

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A0349

Image of WW1 HOWITZER 4.5 PROJECTILE WITH No101 FUZE (FUSE)

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WW1 HOWITZER 4.5 PROJECTILE WITH No101 FUZE (FUSE)

Probably picked up from the original battlefield and repainted. Yellow Denotes a filling of High Explosive (HE), in this case Amatol . It is fitted with a No101 MK2 percussion (impact) fuse, has no safety shutter and no 'Graze' facility i,e, it only explodes when hitting an object, not if it grazes it. The only safety feature are pins that must be removed before loading into the breach. See Item A0867 for a description of the No101E fuse.

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A0467

Image of WW1 HOWITZER 4.5inch  PROJECTILE WITH No83 Mk2 FUZE (FUSE)

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WW1 HOWITZER 4.5inch PROJECTILE WITH No83 Mk2 FUZE (FUSE)

Shell probably picked up from the original battlefield and restored. Repainted in black denotes a Shrapnell shell with various explosive fillings. It is fitted with a No 83 Mk2 timed and percussion fuse. This fuse operates as follows:- A ball is released by centrifugal force on leaving the gun, this arms the percussion portion of the fuze. The timed portion set by the adjustable ring before loading into the breach ignites on leaving the gun, if the timed portion should fail to trigger the detonator, the percussion element will trigger the charge on impact or 'Graze' (skimming an object or surface). A safety pin is removed before loading the round into the breach. The No83 Fuze is similar to a No81 Fuze. See Items A0360 and A0361

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A0466

Image of WW1 18 POUND HIGH EXPLOSIVE ROUND WITH No100 FUZE (FUSE)

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WW1 18 POUND HIGH EXPLOSIVE ROUND WITH No100 FUZE (FUSE)

High explosive 18 pound round with No 100 impact fuze of 1915. The No100 fuze was replaced by the No101 type which had improved safety features. for more information see Item A0467.

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A0471

Image of WW1 SHRAPNEL 13 POUNDER  INSIDE EXPOSED

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WW1 SHRAPNEL 13 POUNDER INSIDE EXPOSED

Shrapnel shell with timed fuze unmarked. Designed to explode in the air above the infantry, the charge inside (after the fuze timed out), was detonated at the base of the projectile, pushing the contents (Iron Balls) out at a high velocity and blowing off the fuze, as the projectile is now upside down (falling from the sky) these are projected toward the enemy. Fired from a 9cwt artillery Gun.

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A0470

Image of WW11 KEY FOR OPENING AMMUNITION BOXES.

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WW11 KEY FOR OPENING AMMUNITION BOXES.

This tool was used for opening ammunition boxes or powder cases, this was originally thought to be a fuze setting tool. Thanks to the commenter's who corrected this error .

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A1443

Image of WW1 KEY FOR OPENING AMMUNITION BOXES.

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WW1 KEY FOR OPENING AMMUNITION BOXES.

This tool was used for opening ammunition boxes or powder cases, this was originally thought to be a fuze setting tool. Thanks to the commenter's who corrected this error .

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A0900

Image of WWII S.O.E.TIME PENCILS IN BOX

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WWII S.O.E.TIME PENCILS IN BOX

Special Operations Executive

Time pencils were fuzes timed by acid corroding a thin wire , when the wire broke a spring foced a pin onto a percussion cap exploding a small charge.
Timing could be erratic in different temperatures, a colour code denoted the time period of each fuze. Used mainley by resistance movements in various Countries.
The items shown are colour time code Green.

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A0982

Image of WW1 HALES No 2 Mk 1 HAND or MEXICAN GRENADE

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WW1 HALES No 2 Mk 1 HAND or MEXICAN GRENADE

A variation on the Hales Patent Grenade patented by Martin Hale who worked for the Cotton Powder Co at Faversham Kent, it is a simple percussion type with internal graze fuze. It was filled with 'Tonote', an explosive made of Gun cotton and Barium Nitrate. In 1907 the Cotton Powder Co tried to sell there design to the British Army but were rejected during trials of the No1 Type. The company sold it to the Mexican Government with a 7mm rod for firing from their rifles. During WW1 shortages of the No1 grenade, the British purchased supplies from Mexico. The design was modified removing the rod and fitted a handle and tape for throwing, this was the NO2 Mk1. The Detonator is inserted, the streamer unfolded and the safety pin removed, (not shown) thrown high into the air to allow the tail to point the unit head first when hitting the ground. The No2 was introduced in Feb 1915 and declared obsolete in 1920, about 130,00 were manufactured.

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A1292

Image of WW1 RACQUET GRENADE WITH BATTYE BOMB

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WW1 RACQUET GRENADE WITH BATTYE BOMB

The French magazine L'ILLUSTRATION 22 May 1915 shows a picture of a soldier in a trench throwing one of these and the title refers to it as a 'Racquet' bomb.

Units like these were hobbled together near the front line by the French and English alike. As new armaments became scarce during the early years of the war, men at the front improvised. Using a casing from a Battye Bomb that was usually thrown on its own, and attaching it to a handle improved the distance it could be thrown, containing Black Powder and lit by a simple fuse such devises could be quite affective.

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A0454

Image of WW1 BRITISH No12 Mk1 (HAIRBRUSH) GRENADE

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WW1 BRITISH No12 Mk1 (HAIRBRUSH) GRENADE

This No12 Mk1 commonly known as a Hairbrush grenade is almost certainly a reproduction not original.

In use the small lever is straightened from the safety position and the pin is pulled. This releases a plunger held back by a spring which fires a percussion cap igniting the delay fuse, at this point the unit is thrown.

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A1036

Image of WW1 FRENCH ERSATZ  HAIR BRUSH GRENADE

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WW1 FRENCH ERSATZ HAIR BRUSH GRENADE

Home made Grenade, made from a metal pipe and a piece of wood, common when stocks of manufactured grenade were scarce.
Just light the fuse and throw. (Ersatz means substitute or replacement).

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A1000

Image of WWII GERMAN MODEL 24 'STIELHANDGRANATE'

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WWII GERMAN MODEL 24 'STIELHANDGRANATE'

Hand grenade known as the 'Jam Pot' or 'Potato Masher'. Used by the German army form the end of WW1 through WW2.

Marked VORGEBRAUGH SPRENGKAPSEL EINSETZEN

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A1100

Image of WWII PRACTICE SMOKE HAND GRENADE, GERMAN

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WWII PRACTICE SMOKE HAND GRENADE, GERMAN

German practice smoke hand grenade, this grenade would be used to develop throwing techniques.

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A1101

Image of WWII BUTTERFLY BOMB, Sprengbombe Dickwandig 2kg or SD2A

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WWII BUTTERFLY BOMB, Sprengbombe Dickwandig 2kg or SD2A

Stored in containers within an aircraft carrying up to 108 bombs folded, when released from the container the wings opened and rotated the shaft out of the bomb thus arming it, also as the bomb fell the wings stabilized its fall and gave the appearance of a butterfly, hence the name.

Fitted with the 41 fuse, which could be delayed or detonated on impact.

Other types of Fuzes are:-

The 67 fuze was time delayed between 5 and 30 minutes.

The 70 fuze which detonated if the bomb was moved.

If a bomb was found intact it was not disarmed but destroyed on the spot as (if fitted with a 70 fuze) any movement would trigger the device.
The U.S. copied the bomb and it was used in Korea and Vietnam, designated the M83.

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A0987

Image of WWII GERMAN BUTTERFLY BOMB

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WWII GERMAN BUTTERFLY BOMB

There is a hole in the bottom of the unit, where the explosive ware removed, the drouges (wings) were never actually used on this version. It seems to have been made up from odds, as the cylinder is a screw type.
The fuse fitting was a Bayonet type, designated as a SD2B.
See Item A0987 above.

Also see the comments for this object.

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A0365

Image of WWII  BRITISH SHELL FUZE (FUSE) COVER

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WWII BRITISH SHELL FUZE (FUSE) COVER

Shell covers were used to protect the fuze during transit, and in the early days of the war were kept and reused. This cover is marked as a souvenir for the Fusiliers and Royal Artillery.
The Germans used Bakelite covers.

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A0435

Image of WW1 BRITISH IMPACT FUZE (FUSE) No 13 Mk 5 AND COLLAR or PLUG

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WW1 BRITISH IMPACT FUZE (FUSE) No 13 Mk 5 AND COLLAR or PLUG

Impact Fuse No13 Mk5 and collar or plug for unknown projectile, it is not certain if the two objects go together. The No13 Fuze was a direct action impact type in use in 1915. Used with heavy common Lyddite shells. The charge will only detonate on impact, and there is no safety feature other than pins removed before installing into the breach.

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A0437

Image of WW1 GERMAN FUZE (FUSE) FOR 17cm MINENWERFER (TRENCH MORTAR )

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WW1 GERMAN FUZE (FUSE) FOR 17cm MINENWERFER (TRENCH MORTAR )

Timed and Percussion fuze for the German 17cm Trench Mortar, the time delay is set with an adjustable ring that could be changed according to the calculations. It worked by igniting a ring of a slow burning compound underneath the calibration ring, the time it burnt before detonation was determined by the position of the ring. If the timing should fail then the percussion or impact part would take over.

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A0436

Image of WW1 DOPP 92 SP 15 GERMAN TIMED FUZE (FUSE)

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WW1 DOPP 92 SP 15 GERMAN TIMED FUZE (FUSE)

Double effect fuse, this model was an evolution of the Dopp Z 91, based on the same principles, therefore having a classic percussion system in the tail and a rotating discs time system in the upper cone. The lower disc mobile was engraved with graduations from 1 to 29 seconds, and a Roman cross for the pure impact percussion function.
Entirely made of brass, it had a security pin blocking the concutor of the time system. The same specific arming system of the percussion device (with a powder grain in spite of the classical German stem system). It is not clear whether this is triggered by impact or firing.
German version of a timed and percussion fuze, it is sometimes important that a shell explodes beneath the ground, impact fuzes did not achieve this, also if a shell hits a brick wall exploding on the surface would create less damage than if it past through the wall and exploded on the inside, exploding underground may be useful for collapsing enemy tunnels. Many fuses were developed during WW1.
The time delay is set with an adjustable ring that could be changed according to the calculations by the gun observer . It worked by igniting a ring of a slow burning compound underneath the calibration ring, the time it burnt before detonation was determined by the position of the ring.

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A0434

Image of WW1 No. 100 BRITISH FUZE (FUSE) WITH CUT AWAY

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WW1 No. 100 BRITISH FUZE (FUSE) WITH CUT AWAY

Impact fuze used during WW1. This version has been cut away to show the workings, and was used for training. It is similar to the Fuze No101, has no safety shutter or bolt, the only protection from premature ignition were the pins removed before loading into the breach.
After firing from the gun, it will only explode if it directly hits an object. For a description see item A0467. For the complete version see Item No A0876.

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A0433

Image of WW1 No 106 Mk 2 IMPACT FUZE  (FUSE)

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WW1 No 106 Mk 2 IMPACT FUZE (FUSE)

Impact fuze for Howitzer 4.5'' Projectile, The original fuze did not have a safety shutter, but the 106E type did. The shutter armed the fuze by revolving at speed. At the front is a plunger to trigger the device, which is further protected by a collar and weight, which is spun off in flight.
Its main use was in early Shrapnel shells when used for cutting barbed wire, but this was abandoned in favour of high explosive shells which were more effective, as the wire attached to pickets just bounced off. This fuse was in use in many variations almost up to the Second World War. Its most important feature was its speed of triggering (essential for wire breaking), but as more safety features were added this speed was lost and the fuze rendered obsolete.

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A0469

Image of WW1 4.5 INCH HOWITZER CARTRIDGE CASE

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WW1 4.5 INCH HOWITZER CARTRIDGE CASE

Cartridge case for Howitzer Gun, the projectile portion was fed into the Breach of the gun first, followed by the charge rapped in cloth, then on top of that the cartridge casing containing the percussion cap was fitted over the charge and pushed up to the rim.
The door of the breach was closed and the gun fired, all that was left was the casing, which was removed ready for the next projectile.

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A0361

Image of HOTCHKISS 47mm 2.5lb REVOLVER ROUNDS, 1900's

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HOTCHKISS 47mm 2.5lb REVOLVER ROUNDS, 1900's

Supplied to the Japanese Navy for their Revolver ship mounted guns.

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A0878

Image of WW1 BRITISH 100/101E FUZE (FUSE)

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WW1 BRITISH 100/101E FUZE (FUSE)

No101 MK2 impact or percussion fuze is fitted with a safety shutter which only opens when spinning at speed, it can also be fitted with a 'Gain' which has three more possibilities, not only does it have an additional shutter mechanism but can also be timed after impact. It also has a 'Graze' facility, which means it will still ignite if it skims a surface; the last feature is an extra charge for explosives than require more heat for ignition.
Used with high explosive shells for collapsing enemy tunnels or breaking through walls before exploding. See Item A0360 and A0361 and No101 fuze A0467

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A0876

Image of WWII S.O.E ITEMS IN FRAME

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WWII S.O.E ITEMS IN FRAME

Special Operations Executive S.O.E. items such as Time pencils. Time pencils were fuzes timed by acid corroding a thin wire , when the wire broke a spring forced a pin onto a percussion cap exploding a small charge.
Timing could be erratic in different temperatures, a colour code denoted the time period of each fuze. Used mainly by resistance movements in various Countries.
The items shown are colour time code Green. Trip wire Detonators and Trip Wire a small compass Nicknamed 'Button' because of its size, but not actually a button as in Item A1121. A Safety Fuse, and a Rail Detonator for positioning on a train line.
Rail Detonators are still used today for warning purposes.

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A0810

Image of WWII ANTI PERSONAL MINE FUZE (FUSE)

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WWII ANTI PERSONAL MINE FUZE (FUSE)

Not clear how this worked, as the prongs are fixed and the pin will not enable operation as aperture below is blocked.

More information about this item would be appreciated.

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A0983

Image of 1871-1900 MARTINI HENRY ROUNDS, 1900's

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1871-1900 MARTINI HENRY ROUNDS, 1900's

Originally all Martini rounds were hand made out of brass foil with a steel base holding the cap, problems were common because of the fragile casing jamming in the breach. The problem was overcome on June the 9th 1885 with the adoption of the new drawn brass case.
The Martini Henry fired originally a .450” soft lead bullet (12 parts lead 1 part tin) weighing 480 grains. Adopted as the Mark III on 16 Aug 1873.

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A0439

Image of SNIDER BOXER CARTIDGE AND PELLET, 1800

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SNIDER BOXER CARTIDGE AND PELLET, 1800

Boxer cartridge showing the internal pellet that expands the projectile when fired into the rifled barrel.

In 1867 the British war office adopted the Eley-Boxer metallic central-fire cartridge case in the Enfield rifles, which were converted to breech-loaders on the Snider principle. This consisted of a block opening on a hinge, thus forming a false breech against which the cartridge rested.
The detonating cap was in the base of the cartridge, and was exploded by a striker passing through the breech block. Other European powers adopted breech-loading military rifles from 1866 to 1868, with paper instead of metallic cartridge cases.
The original Eley-Boxer cartridge case was made of thin coiled brass - occasionally these cartridges could break apart and jam the breech with the unwound remains of the casing upon firing. Later the solid-drawn, central-fire cartridge case, made of one entire solid piece of tough hard metal, an alloy of copper, with a solid head of thicker metal, has been generally substituted. The principal on which Colonel Edward,M, Boxer, based his new idea was to solve the problem of getting the new breach loading rounds to fit snugly into the rifle barrel, but still allow easy loading of the round into the breach, if the principal of rifling was to work the projectile had to fit the barrel tightly, meaning that the round would have to be pushed hard into the breach, loading therefore could be difficult.
The problem was solved by fitting a slug of clay into the cartridge prior to the lead bullet (projectile), this slug was tapered and almost fitted into a cavity in the bullet, when the round was fired the slug was forced into the bullet expanding the rear end, thus allowing the bullet to fit loosely into the barrel until fired whereupon the end expanded fitting the rifling perfectly.

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A0543


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