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Used in class rooms to demonstrate high voltage effects on evacuated tubes,or Cathode Rays. Sir William Crookes circa 1875. (1832-1919) The Railway tube or Paddle Wheel demonstrates Kinetic Energy.
The electrons bounced at the paddles (which are covered
with a small amount of a Mineral which will glow for effect), this will turn
the paddle wheel and move from one end of the tube to the other.
Crookes thought that Cathode Rays had momentum, but in 1903 J.J.Thomson proved that the rays hitting the paddle heated the gas on that side causing it to expand, as the gas on the other side remained cool, the vane moved away from the ray.
The railway tube was one of the models
Crookes demonstrated in his famous lecture in
Sheffield 1879.

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